Ferrous Sulphate Monohydrate is off white crystalline compound with molecular formula FeSO4.H2O. It has the highest iron content as compared to other ferrous sulphate hydrates because of its low water content. It has applications in cement, sewage water treatment, poultry farm, fertilizers and pharmacy industries.
Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is one of the forms of ferrous sulphate. Ferrous sulphate is found in many forms such as monohydrate to heptahydrate. Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate on further drying gives ferrous sulphate monohydrate.
It is available in various particle sizes and in powdered form. It does not compact or cake in storage unless it is not exposed to free water or excess temperature. Dried ferrous sulphate monohydrate has a benefit over heptahydrate that higher iron content results in lower transportation, bagging and palletizing cost per pound of iron and heptahydrate form is easily obtainable from monohydrate form.
It is used in the chemical industry as a neutralizing agent for cyanide solution, as a trace element in fertilizers and as a source of red pigment, ferric oxide. It also has an application as a pesticide for prevention of pathological changes of wheat and fruit tree. It improves soil and removes moss and lichen. It is ideal for poultry growth and used as animal feed additive as an iron supplement. It is used as a precursor for other iron compounds in pharmaceuticals. It is added in cement for reduction of chromate.
Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is produced from ferrous sulphate. Ferrous sulphate (a mixture of all hydrated forms of ferrous sulphate) is heated 60°C to 800°C. Barium chlorides, irons and flocculants are added into ferrous sulphate heptahydrate. The mixture is boiled for 1 to 4 hours. The filter cake is separated from supernatant liquid. It is dried so as to obtain ferrous sulphate monohydrate.
Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate is obtained from two processes:
1. By product of titanium dioxide (which is paint pigment) production via sulphuric acid process
In the sulphuric process ilmenite ore (FeTiO3) is treated with sulphuric acid. This produces a titanyl sulphate liquor. The liquor is sent to clarifier to separate undissolved solids. The liquor is then concentrated and hydrolysed to titanium dioxide hydrate. The titanium dioxide hydrate precipitates from the ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid and separated by filtration process. Ferrous sulphate is then obtained by crystallization and separated out as a by-product.
Process flow diagram is as follows:
In this process pickling solution which consists of FeCl2 is treated with sulphuric acid, which gives ferrous sulphate. It is on crystallization gives ferrous sulphate heptahydrate. This ferrous sulphate heptahydrate is then used to obtain ferrous sulphate monohydrate.
Process flow diagram is as follows:
Cement typically comprises of small amount of Chromium, Cr (VI) compounds. It is toxic and harmful to the skin and also water soluble. It has to be reduced to Cr (III) which is harmless and insoluble in water. Ferrous sulphate is used as reducing agent in cement industry while grinding cement in 0.3 to 0.6% quantities. Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is more useful than ferrous sulphate heptahydrate as ferrous sulphate heptahydrate is corrosive and dusting due to low melting point.
2. Agriculture and fertilizer industry
It is used in the fertilizers to meet the requirement of iron of the plants. It is a moss and lichen killer and also used as lawn conditioner. It is also one of the constituent of pesticides which are applicable for prevention of pathological changes of wheat and fruit tree. In horticulture it is used for treating iron chlorosis (i.e. yellowing of foliage caused by iron deficiency). Supply of ferrous sulphate monohydrate in the fertilizers doesn’t a show rapid effect on iron chlorosis but its effects are long lasting.
3. Animal Feed
Ferrous sulphate is mainly used as a mineral additive in poultry and cattle feed. It works as a blood tonic substance to livestock, and it stimulates the growth of an animal body. It eliminates iron deficiency.
4. Waste water treatment
In the purification of water by flocculation and for phosphate removal ferrous sulphate monohydrate is essential. It is employed in industrial and municipal sewage water treatment. It prevents eutrophication of surface water bodies.
5. Textile, wood paint and ink
It is used as mordant in wool dyeing. It is employed in the manufacture of ink. It is useful in the traditional method of treating wood panel on houses either alone dissolved in water or as a component of water-based paint. Wood workers use ferrous sulphate monohydrate solution to color maple wood as a silvery hue.
6. Other application
It is a precursor for other iron compounds. It is employed in Pharma industry to obtain other iron compounds. It is a neutralizing agent for cyanide solutions. It is also used to make pigment such as red ferric oxide. It is added to the cooling water flowing through the brass tubes of turbine condenser. It forms a corrosion resistant, protective coating on the inside surface of the tube.
|Synonym||:||Dried ferrous sulphate monohydrate|
|Appearance||Fine off white powder|
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